Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements Disclosure [Text Block]
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
MaxLinear, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in September 2003. MaxLinear, Inc., together with its wholly owned subsidiaries, collectively referred to as MaxLinear, or the Company, is a provider of radio-frequency, high-performance analog and mixed-signal communications systems-on-chip solutions for the connected home, wired and wireless infrastructure, and industrial and multi-market applications. MaxLinear's customers include electronics distributors, module makers, original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, and original design manufacturers, or ODMs, who incorporate the Company’s products in a wide range of electronic devices including cable DOCSIS broadband modems and gateways; wireline connectivity devices for in-home networking applications; RF transceivers and modems for wireless carrier access and backhaul infrastructure; fiber-optic modules for data center, metro, and long-haul transport networks; video set-top boxes and gateways; hybrid analog and digital televisions, direct broadcast satellite outdoor and indoor units; and power management and interface products used in these and a range of other markets. The Company is a fabless integrated circuit design company whose products integrate all or substantial portions of a broadband communication system.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of MaxLinear, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP. All intercompany transactions and investments have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform with the current period presentation. Such reclassifications include the separate presentation of short-and long-term restricted cash and deferred tax assets on the consolidated balance sheets, and interest expense on the consolidated statements of operations.
The functional currency of certain foreign subsidiaries is the local currency. Accordingly, assets and liabilities of these foreign subsidiaries are translated at the current exchange rate at the balance sheet date and historical rates for equity. Revenue and expense components are translated at weighted average exchange rates in effect during the period. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency translation are included as a component of stockholders’ equity. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in the results of operations, and to date, have not been material.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes of the consolidated financial statements. The Company continually evaluates its estimates and judgments, the most critical of which are those related to revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts, inventory valuation, income taxes and stock-based compensation. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Business Combinations
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 805, Business Combinations, in accounting for its acquisitions. It requires the Company to recognize separately from goodwill the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed, at the acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the acquisition date fair values of the net assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date as well as contingent consideration, where applicable, its estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company records adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the consolidated statements of operations.
Costs to exit or restructure certain activities of an acquired company or the Company's internal operations are accounted for as termination and exit costs pursuant to ASC 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations, and are accounted for separately from the business combination. A liability for costs associated with an exit or disposal activity is recognized and measured at its fair value in the consolidated statement of operations in the period in which the liability is incurred. When estimating the fair value of facility restructuring activities, assumptions are applied regarding estimated sub-lease payments to be received, which can differ materially from actual results. This may require the Company to revise its initial estimates which may materially affect the results of operations and financial position in the period the revision is made.
For a given acquisition, the Company may identify certain pre-acquisition contingencies as of the acquisition date and may extend its review and evaluation of these pre-acquisition contingencies throughout the measurement period in order to obtain sufficient information to assess whether the Company includes these contingencies as a part of the fair value estimates of assets acquired and liabilities assumed and, if so, to determine their estimated amounts.
If the Company cannot reasonably determine the fair value of a pre-acquisition contingency (non-income tax related) by the end of the measurement period, which is generally the case given the nature of such matters, the Company will recognize an asset or a liability for such pre-acquisition contingency if: (i) it is probable that an asset existed or a liability had been incurred at the acquisition date and (ii) the amount of the asset or liability can be reasonably estimated. Subsequent to the measurement period, changes in estimates of such contingencies will affect earnings and could have a material effect on the Company's results of operations and financial position.
In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances assumed in connection with a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date. The Company reevaluates these items quarterly based upon facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date with any adjustments to the preliminary estimates being recorded to goodwill if identified within the measurement period. Subsequent to the end of the measurement period or final determination of the estimated value of the tax allowance or contingency, whichever comes first, changes to these uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances will affect the income tax provision (benefit) in the consolidated statement of operations and could have a material impact on the results of operations and financial position.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are recorded at cost, which approximates market value.
Restricted Cash
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company has restricted cash of $2.5 million and $1.8 million, respectively. The cash is on deposit in connection with guarantees for certain office leases.
Accounts Receivable
The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and assesses each customer's credit worthiness. The Company monitors collections and payments from its customers and maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon its historical experience, its anticipation of uncollectible accounts receivable and any specific customer collection issues that the Company has identified. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company has an allowance for doubtful accounts of $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
The Company assesses the recoverability of its inventory based on assumptions about demand and market conditions. Forecasted demand is determined based on historical sales and expected future sales. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis and net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation. The Company reduces its inventory to its lower of cost or net realizable value on a part-by-part basis to account for its obsolescence or lack of marketability. Reductions are calculated as the difference between the cost of inventory and its net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand, market conditions and costs. Once established, these adjustments are considered permanent and are not revised until the related inventory is sold or disposed of.
Investments, Available-for-Sale
The Company classifies all investments as available-for-sale, as the sale of such investments may be required prior to maturity to implement management strategies. These investments are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses reported as accumulated other comprehensive income until realized. The cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization and accretion, as well as interest and dividends, are included in interest income. Realized gains and losses from the sale of available-for-sale investments, if any, are determined on a specific identification basis and are also included in interest income.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and compensation are considered to be representative of their respective fair value because of the short-term nature of these accounts. Investment securities, available-for-sale, and the interest rate swap are carried at fair value.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is carried at cost and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the assets, ranging from two to five years, using the straight-line method. Leasehold improvements are stated at cost and amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the lease term.
Production Masks
Production masks with alternative future uses or discernible future benefits are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful life of two years. To determine if the production mask has alternative future uses or benefits, the Company evaluates risks associated with developing new technologies and capabilities, and the related risks associated with entering new markets. Production masks that do not meet the criteria for capitalization are expensed as research and development costs.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations accounted for under the acquisition method. Intangible assets represent purchased intangible assets including developed technology, in-process research and development, or IPR&D, technologies acquired or licensed from other companies, customer relationships, non-compete covenants, backlog, and trademarks and tradenames. Purchased finite-lived intangible assets are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful lives. Technologies acquired or licensed from other companies, customer relationships, non-compete covenants, backlog, and trademarks and tradenames are capitalized and amortized over the lesser of the terms of the agreement, or estimated useful life. The Company capitalizes IPR&D projects acquired as part of a business combination. On completion of each project, IPR&D assets are reclassified to developed technology and amortized over their estimated useful lives.
Impairment of Goodwill and Long-Lived Assets
Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment using either a qualitative assessment, and/or the two-step method as needed. Step one is the identification of potential impairment. This involves comparing the fair value of each reporting unit, which the Company has determined to be the entity itself, with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying amount, the goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired and the second step of the impairment test is unnecessary. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The Company tests by reporting unit, goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment as of October 31 each year or more frequently if it believes indicators of impairment exist.
During development, IPR&D is not subject to amortization and is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The Company reviews indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment using a qualitative assessment, followed by a quantitative assessment, as needed, each year as of October 31, the date of its annual goodwill impairment review, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Recoverability of indefinite-lived intangible assets is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its fair value. In certain cases, the Company utilizes the relief-from-royalty method when appropriate, and a fair value will be obtained based on analysis over the costs saved by owning the right instead of leasing it. 
Once an IPR&D project is complete, it becomes a finite-lived intangible asset and is evaluated for impairment both immediately prior to its change in classification and thereafter in accordance with the Company's policy for long-lived assets.
The Company regularly reviews the carrying amount of its long-lived assets subject to depreciation and amortization, as well as the useful lives, to determine whether indicators of impairment may exist which warrant adjustments to carrying values or estimated useful lives. An impairment loss would be recognized when the sum of the expected future undiscounted net cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. Should impairment exist, the impairment loss would be measured based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset over the asset’s fair value.

During 2017, 2016 and 2015, the Company identified impairment of IPR&D of $2.0 million, $1.3 million and $21.6 million, respectively. Refer to Goodwill and Intangible Assets, Note 5 for more information.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is generated from sales of the Company’s integrated circuits. The Company recognizes revenue when all of the following criteria are met: 1) there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, 2) delivery of goods has occurred, 3) the sales price is fixed or determinable and 4) collectability is reasonably assured. Title to product transfers to customers either when it is shipped to or received by the customer, based on the terms of the specific agreement with the customer.
Revenue is recorded based on the facts at the time of sale. Transactions for which the Company cannot reliably estimate the amount that will ultimately be collected at the time the product has shipped and title has transferred to the customer are deferred until the amount that is probable of collection can be determined. Items that are considered when determining the amounts that will be ultimately collected are: a customer’s overall creditworthiness and payment history; customer rights to return unsold product; customer rights to price protection; customer payment terms conditioned on sale or use of product by the customer; or extended payment terms granted to a customer.
A portion of the Company’s revenues are generated from sales made through distributors, some of which are under agreements allowing for pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights of return. Pricing credits to the Company’s distributors may result from its price protection and unit rebate provisions, among other factors. These pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights prevent the Company from being able to reliably estimate the final sales price of the inventory sold and the amount of inventory that could be returned pursuant to these agreements. As a result, for some sales through distributors, the Company has determined that it does not meet all of the required revenue recognition criteria at the time it delivers its products to distributors as the final sales price is not fixed or determinable. For such sales, revenue is not recognized until product is shipped to the end customer, which is when the amount that will ultimately be collected is fixed or determinable. Upon shipment of product to these distributors, title to the inventory transfers to the distributor and the distributor is invoiced, generally with 30 to 60 day terms. On shipments to the Company’s distributors where revenue is not recognized, the Company records a trade receivable for the selling price as there is a legally enforceable right to payment, relieving the inventory for the carrying value of goods shipped since legal title has passed to the distributor, and records the corresponding gross profit in the consolidated balance sheet as a component of deferred revenue and deferred profit, representing the difference between the receivable recorded and the cost of inventory shipped. The Company also accepts orders or amendments to orders with non-cancellable and non-refundable, or NCNR, terms with fixed pricing. For such transactions, revenue is not deferred. As of January 1, 2018, all sales to distributors will be recognized upon shipment and estimates of future pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights from the Company’s distributors will reduce related revenues. If our estimates of such credits and rights are materially inaccurate, it may result in adjustments that affect future revenues and gross profits.
The Company records reductions in revenue for estimated pricing adjustments related to price protection agreements with the Company’s end customers in the same period that the related revenue is recorded. Price protection pricing adjustments are recorded at the time of sale as a reduction to revenue and an increase in the Company’s accrued liabilities. The amount of these reductions is based on specific criteria included in the agreements and other factors known at the time. The Company accrues 100% of potential price protection adjustments at the time of sale and does not apply a breakage factor. The Company de-recognizes the accrual for unclaimed price protection amounts as specific programs contractually end and when the Company believes unclaimed amounts are no longer subject to payment and will not be paid. See Note 7 for a summary of the Company's price protection activity.
Revenues from sales through the Company’s distributors accounted for 34%, 19% and 13% of net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company generally provides a warranty on its products for a period of one to three years. The Company makes estimates of product return rates and expected costs to replace the products under warranty at the time revenue is recognized based on historical warranty experience and any known product warranty issues. If actual return rates and/or replacement costs differ significantly from these estimates, adjustments to recognize additional cost of net revenue may be required in future periods. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company has warranty reserves of $0.9 million and $0.9 million based on the Company’s estimates.
Segment Information
The Company operates in one segment as it has developed, marketed and sold primarily only one class of similar products, radio-frequency, mixed-signal and high-performance analog integrated circuits for the connected home, wired and wireless infrastructure markets and industrial and multi-market applications.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is its Chief Executive Officer. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. The Company has one business activity and there are no segment managers who are held accountable for operations, operating results and plans for products or components below the consolidated unit level. Accordingly, the Company reports as a single operating segment.
Stock-based Compensation
The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for equity incentive awards, including restricted stock units and restricted stock awards, employee stock purchase rights and stock options based on the grant date fair value of the award. The Company calculates the fair value of restricted stock units and restricted stock awards based on the fair market value of its common stock on the grant date. The Company uses the Black-Scholes valuation model to calculate the fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase rights granted to employees. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the period during which the employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award, which is usually the vesting period. The Company recognizes compensation expense over the vesting period using the straight-line method and classifies these amounts in the consolidated statements of operations based on the department to which the related employee reports.
Research and Development
Costs incurred in connection with the development of the Company’s technology and future products are charged to research and development expense as incurred.
Derivatives and Hedging Activities
The Company records derivatives in the consolidated balance sheets at fair value. Hedge accounting is applied to derivatives designated in a hedging relationship. A derivative designated as a hedge of a forecasted transaction is carried at fair value with the effective portion of a derivative’s gain or loss recorded in other comprehensive income (i.e., a separate component of shareholders’ equity) and subsequently recognized in earnings in the same period or periods the hedged forecasted transaction affects earnings. The ineffective portion of a derivative’s gain or loss is recorded in earnings as it occurs. Changes in certain terms of the hedged transactions, including the selection of interest rate from one-month LIBOR to another rate could cause ineffectiveness in the derivatives and result in reclassification of amounts in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) into earnings.
Income Taxes
The Company provides for income taxes utilizing the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, deferred taxes represent the future tax consequences expected to occur when the reported amounts of assets and liabilities are recovered or paid. Deferred taxes are presented net as noncurrent. The provision for income taxes generally represents income taxes paid or payable for the current year plus the change in deferred taxes during the year. Deferred taxes result from the differences between the financial and tax bases of the Company’s assets and liabilities and are adjusted for changes in tax rates and tax laws when changes are enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when a judgment is made that is considered more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. A decision to record a valuation allowance results in an increase in income tax expense or a decrease in income tax benefit. If the valuation allowance is released in a future period, income tax expense will be reduced accordingly.
The calculation of tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex global tax regulations. The impact of an uncertain income tax position is recognized at the largest amount that is “more likely than not” to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. If the estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would result.
In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. The Company continually assesses the need for a valuation allowance on the deferred tax asset by evaluating both positive and negative evidence that may exist. Any adjustment to the net deferred tax asset valuation allowance would be recorded in the income statement for the period that the adjustment is determined to be required.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act, was enacted into U.S. tax law. Also on December 22, 2017, the SEC issued guidance in Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, or SAB 118, to address certain fact patterns where the accounting for changes in tax laws or tax rates under ASC Topic 740 is incomplete upon issuance of an entity's financial statements for the reporting period in which the Tax Act is enacted. As permitted in SAB 118, in 2017, the Company has taken a measurement period approach and reported certain provisional amounts, based on reasonable estimates, for certain tax effects in which the accounting under ASC 740 is incomplete. Such provisional amounts are subject to adjustment during a limited measurement period, not to extend one year beyond the tax law enactment date, until the accounting under ASC 740 is complete. The Company has also made required supplemental disclosures to accompany the provisional amounts, including the reasons for the incomplete accounting, the additional information or analysis that is needed, and other information relevant to why the Company was not able to complete the accounting required under ASC 740 in a timely manner (Note 10).
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity (net assets) of a business entity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. Other comprehensive income (loss) includes certain changes in equity that are excluded from net income (loss), such as unrealized holding gains and losses on available-for-sale investments, net of tax, foreign currency translation gains and losses, and unrealized gains and losses from interest rate hedging activities.
The following table summarizes the balances in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) by component:
Available for Sale Investments
Cumulative Translation Adjustments
Interest Rate Hedge
(in thousands)
Balance at December 31, 2017




Balance at December 31, 2016



Net Income (Loss) per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to the Company by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. For diluted net income (loss) per share, net income (loss) attributable to the Company is divided by the sum of the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding and the potential number of shares of dilutive common stock outstanding during the period.
Litigation and Settlement Costs
Legal costs are expensed as incurred. The Company is involved in disputes, litigation and other legal actions in the ordinary course of business. The Company continually evaluates uncertainties associated with litigation and records a charge equal to at least the minimum estimated liability for a loss contingency when both of the following conditions are met: (i) information available prior to issuance of the financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset had been impaired or a liability had been incurred at the date of the financial statements and (ii) the loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated.