Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes primarily related to projected current federal, state, and foreign income taxes. To determine the quarterly provision for income taxes, the Company used an estimated annual effective tax rate, which is generally based on expected annual income and statutory tax rates in the various jurisdictions in which the Company operates. In addition, the tax effects of certain significant or unusual item are recognized discretely in the quarter during which they occur and can be a source of variability in the effective tax rates from quarter to quarter.
The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, under which deferred taxes are determined based on temporary differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using tax rates expected to be in effect during the years in which the temporary differences reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred taxes to the amount it believes is more likely than not to be realized. In making such determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence quarterly, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and recent financial performance.  Forming a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not required is difficult when there is negative evidence such as cumulative losses in recent years. Based upon the Company's review of all positive and negative evidence, the Company released the valuation allowance against certain of its federal deferred tax assets during the three months ended June 30, 2017. The Company continues to have a valuation allowance on its state deferred taxes, certain of its federal deferred tax assets, and certain foreign deferred tax assets in jurisdictions where the Company has cumulative losses or otherwise is not expected to utilize certain tax attributes. The Company does not incur expense or benefit in certain tax free jurisdictions in which it operates.
The Company recorded an income tax benefit of $1.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2018 and a provision for income taxes of $2.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017. The income tax benefit in the three months ended March 31, 2018 primarily relates to the mix of pre-tax income among jurisdictions, excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation, and release of certain foreign reserves for uncertain tax positions under ASC 740-10.
The provision for income taxes in the three months ended March 31, 2017 primarily relates to federal alternative minimum tax due to the Company's limitation on use of net operating losses, credit carryforwards, state income taxes, and income taxes in certain foreign jurisdictions.

Income tax positions must meet a more-likely-than-not threshold to be recognized. Income tax positions that previously failed to meet the more-likely-than-not threshold are recognized in the first subsequent financial reporting period in which that threshold is met. Previously recognized tax positions that no longer meet the more-likely-than-not threshold are derecognized in the first financial reporting period in which that threshold is no longer met. The Company records potential penalties and interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits within the consolidated statements of income as income tax expense. During the three months ended March 31, 2018, the Company’s unrecognized tax benefits decreased by $0.7 million. The Company does not expect its unrecognized tax benefits to change significantly over the next 12 months. Accrued interest and penalties associated with uncertain tax positions as of March 31, 2018 were approximately $0.8 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
The Company is subject to federal and state income tax in the United States and is also subject to income tax in various states and foreign tax jurisdictions. At March 31, 2018, the Company’s tax years for 2013, 2012, and 2009 and forward are subject to examination by federal, state, and foreign tax authorities, respectively. The Company is currently under examination by the California Franchise Tax Board for the 2014 and 2015 tax years.  The Company does not expect the examination to have a material effect on the Company's consolidated financial position or results of operations.  However, certain of the Company's state tax attribute carryforwards, which currently have a full valuation allowance, could be reduced.
In April 2017, the Company's subsidiary in Singapore began operating under certain tax incentives in Singapore, which are generally effective through March 2022, and are conditional upon meeting certain employment and investment thresholds in Singapore. Under the incentives, qualifying income derived from certain sales of the Company's integrated circuits is taxed at a concessionary rate over the incentive period, and there are reduced Singapore withholding taxes on certain intercompany royalties during the incentive period. Primarily because of the Company's Singapore net operating losses and a full valuation allowance in Singapore, the incentives did not have a material impact on the Company's income tax benefit in the three months ended March 31, 2018.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act. Changes include, but are not limited to, a corporate tax rate decrease from 35% to 21% effective for tax years beginning in 2018, the transition of U.S international taxation from a worldwide tax system to a territorial system, which includes a new federal tax on global intangible low-taxed income (Global Minimum Tax or GMT), and a one-time transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of cumulative foreign earnings as of December 31, 2017. In its 2017 consolidated financial statements, the Company calculated its best estimate of the impact of the Tax Act in its 2017 income tax benefit in accordance with its understanding of the Tax Act and guidance available as of the date of the filing of the Annual Report.
In addition, the SEC Staff issued SAB 118, which provides guidance on accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Act. SAB 118 provides a measurement period that should not extend beyond one year from the Tax Act enactment date for companies to complete the accounting under ASC 740. In accordance with SAB 118, a company must reflect the income tax effects of those aspects of the Act for which the accounting under ASC 740 is complete. To the extent that a company’s accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act is incomplete but it is able to determine a reasonable estimate, it must record a provisional estimate in the financial statements. If a company cannot determine a provisional estimate to be included in the financial statements, it should continue to apply ASC 740 on the basis of the provisions of the tax laws that were in effect immediately before the enactment of the Tax Act.
The Company was able to make reasonable estimates of certain effects and, therefore, recorded certain provisional adjustments in the 2017 income tax benefit. Refer to Note 10 to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in the Annual Report for further details. During the three month period ended March 31, 2018, the Company recognized no adjustments to the provisional amounts recorded at December 31, 2017. Additionally, the Company has provided provisional amounts for the legislative provisions that are effective as of January 1, 2018, including, but not limited to, the creation of the base erosion anti-abuse tax (BEAT), a new global minimum tax, GMT, a new limitation on deductible interest expense, and limitations on the use of net operating losses.
At March 31, 2018, the Company's accounting for certain elements of the Tax Act is incomplete. The provisional amounts recorded are subject to revisions as the Company completes its analysis of the Tax Act, collects and prepares necessary data, and interprets any additional guidance issued by the U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, FASB, and other standard-setting and regulatory bodies. Adjustments to the provisional amounts may materially impact the Company's consolidated income tax provision (benefit) and effective tax rates in the period(s) in which such adjustments are made. In all cases, the Company will continue to make and refine calculations as additional analysis is completed. The Company's accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Act will be completed during the one-year measurement period.
Under U.S. GAAP, the Company is allowed to make an accounting policy choice with respect to the GMT of either (1) treating taxes due on future U.S. inclusions in taxable income related to GMT as a current-period expense when incurred or (2) as a component of deferred income taxes. The Company will make its accounting policy election for this item when its analysis is complete, during the measurement period. At March 31, 2018, because the Company is still evaluating the GMT provisions and an analysis of future taxable income that is subject to GMT, the Company has included GMT related to current year operations only in the estimated annual effective tax rate and has not provided additional GMT on deferred items.