Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
MaxLinear, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in September 2003. MaxLinear, Inc., together with its wholly owned subsidiaries, collectively referred to as MaxLinear, or the Company, is a provider of radio-frequency, or RF, high-performance analog, and mixed-signal communications system-on-chip solutions for the connected home, wired and wireless infrastructure, and industrial and multi-market applications. MaxLinear's customers include electronics distributors, module makers, original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, and original design manufacturers, or ODMs, who incorporate the Company’s products in a wide range of electronic devices, including cable DOCSIS broadband modems and gateways, wireline connectivity devices for in-home networking applications, RF transceivers and modems for wireless carrier access and backhaul infrastructure, fiber-optic modules for data center, metro, and long-haul transport networks, video set-top boxes and gateways, hybrid analog and digital televisions, direct broadcast satellite outdoor and indoor units, and power management and interface products used in these and a range of other markets. The Company is a fabless integrated circuit design company whose products integrate all or a substantial portion of a broadband communication system.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of MaxLinear, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP, for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and disclosures required by GAAP for complete financial statements. All intercompany transactions and investments have been eliminated in consolidation. In the opinion of management, the Company’s unaudited consolidated interim financial statements contain adjustments, including normal recurring accruals necessary to present fairly the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income (loss) and cash flows.
The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017 was derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements at that date. The accompanying unaudited consolidated interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2017 included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on February 20, 2018, or the Annual Report. Interim results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2018.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the unaudited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Refer to the Company’s Annual Report for a summary of significant accounting policies. On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASC 606, and accordingly, modified its policy on revenue recognition as stated below. The primary impact of adopting ASC 606 for the Company was to accelerate the timing of the Company’s revenue and related cost recognition on products sold via some of its distributors, which changed from recognition upon the sale to the distributors' end customers, or the sell-through method, to recognition upon the Company's sale to the distributor, or the sell-in method. The Company is now also required to estimate the effects of pricing credits to its distributors from contractual price protection and unit rebate provisions, as well as stock rotation rights and record such estimated credits upon the Company's sale to the distributor.
There have been no other material changes to our significant accounting policies during the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
Substantially all of the Company's revenue is generated from sales of the Company’s integrated circuits to electronics distributors, module makers, OEMs, and ODMs under individual customer purchase orders, some of which have underlying master sales agreements that specify terms governing the product sales. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 and recognizes revenue at the point in time when control of the products is transferred to the customer at the estimated net consideration for which collection is probable, taking into account the customer's rights to price protection, other pricing credits, unit rebates, and rights to return unsold product. Transfer of control occurs either when products are shipped to or received by the distributor or direct customer, based on the terms of the specific agreement with the customer, if the Company has a present right to payment and transfer of legal title and the risks and rewards of ownership to the customer has occurred. For most of the Company's product sales, transfer of control occurs upon shipment to the distributor or direct customer. In assessing whether collection of consideration from a customer is probable, the Company considers the customer's ability and intention to pay that amount of consideration when it is due. Payment of invoices is due as specified in the underlying customer agreement, typically 30 days from the invoice date, which occurs on the date of transfer of control of the products to the customer. Since payment terms are less than a year, the Company has elected the practical expedient and does not assess whether a customer contract has a significant financing component.
A five-step approach is applied in the recognition of revenue under ASC 606: (1) identify the contract with a customer, (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determine the transaction price, (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (5) recognize revenue when the Company satisfies a performance obligation. The Company applied ASC 606 to its customer contracts that were not completed before the January 1, 2018 adoption date. Customer purchase orders plus the underlying master sales agreements are considered to be contracts with the customer for purposes of applying the five-step approach under ASC 606.
Pricing adjustments and estimates of returns under contractual stock rotation rights are treated as variable consideration for purposes of determining the transaction price, and are estimated at the time control transfers using the expected value method based on the Company's analysis of actual price adjustment claims by distributors and historical product return rates, and then reassessed at the end of each reporting period. The Company also considers whether any variable consideration is constrained, since such amounts for which it is probable that a significant reversal will occur when the contingency is subsequently resolved are required to be excluded from revenues. Price adjustments are finalized at the time the products are sold through to the end customer and the distributor or end customer submits a claim to reduce the sale price to a pre-approved net price. Stock rotation allowances are capped at a fixed percentage of the Company's sales to a distributor for a period of time, up to six months, as specified in the individual distributor contract. If the Company's current estimates of such credits and rights are materially inaccurate, it may result in adjustments that affect future revenues and gross profits. Returns under the Company's general assurance warranty of products for a period of one to three years have not been material and warranty-related services are not considered a separate performance obligation under the customer contracts. Most of the Company's customers resell our product as part of their product and thus are tax-exempt; however, to the extent the Company collects and remits taxes on product sales from customers, it has elected to exclude from the measurement of transaction price such taxes.
Each distinct promise to transfer products is considered to be an identified performance obligation for which revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of the products to the customer. Although customers may place orders for products to be delivered on multiple dates that may be in different quarterly reporting periods, all of the orders are scheduled within 1 year from the order date. The Company has opted to not disclose the portion of revenues allocated to partially unsatisfied performance obligations, which represent products to be shipped within 12 months under open customer purchase orders, at the end of the current reporting period as allowed under ASC 606. The Company has also elected to record sales commissions when incurred, pursuant to the practical expedient under ASC 340, as the period over which the sales commission asset that would have been recognized is less than one year.
Customer contract liabilities consist of obligations to deliver rebates to customers in the form of units of products which are included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. Other obligations to customers consist of estimates of price protection rights offered to the Company's end customers, which are included in accrued price protection liability in the consolidated balance sheets, as well as price adjustments expected to be claimed by the distributor upon sell-through of the products to their customers, and amounts expected to be returned by distributors under stock rotation rights, which are included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. The Company also records a right of return asset, consisting of amounts representing the products the Company expects to receive from customers in returns, which is included in inventory in the consolidated balance sheets, and is typically settled within six months of transfer of control to the customer, or the period over which stock rotation rights are based. Upon lapse of the time period for stock rotations, or the contractual end to price protection and rebate programs, which is approximately one to two years, and when the Company believes unclaimed amounts are no longer subject to payment and will not be paid, any remaining asset or liability is derecognized by an offsetting entry to cost of net revenue and net revenue. For additional disclosures regarding contract liabilities and other obligations to customers, see Note 12.
The Company assesses customer accounts receivable and contract assets for impairment in accordance with ASC 310-10-35.
The following tables present the amounts by which each financial statement line item was affected as a result of applying ASC 606:
The impacts of adopting ASC 606 as shown above were primarily related to the acceleration of the timing of the Company’s revenue and related cost recognition on products sold via some of its distributors, which changed from sale to the distributors' end customers, or the sell-through method, to recognition upon the Company's sale to the distributor, or the sell-in method.
Revenues from sales through the Company’s distributors accounted for 46% and 41% of net revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Revenues from sales through the Company’s distributors accounted for 41% and 31% of net revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB, issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which provides for new accounting guidance related to revenue recognition. This new standard replaced all prior U.S. GAAP guidance on this topic and eliminated all industry-specific guidance. The new revenue recognition standard provides a unified model to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The core principle is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration for which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This guidance became effective for the Company on January 1, 2018 and can be applied either retrospectively to each period presented or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The Company applied the guidance prospectively with an adjustment to accumulated deficit for the cumulative effect of adoption. Adoption of the amendments in this guidance accelerated the timing of the Company’s revenue and related cost recognition on products sold via some distributors, which changed from the sell-through method to the sell-in method under this guidance. The Company is also required to estimate the effects of pricing credits to its distributors from contractual price protection and unit rebate provisions, as well as stock rotation rights. The Company has performed an assessment of the impact of adopting this new accounting standard on its consolidated financial position and results of operations. The impact of adoption of this new accounting standard for the year ending December 31, 2018 will vary depending on the level of inventory remaining at December 31, 2018 at distributors for which the Company previously recognized revenue on a sell-through basis, and therefore could have a material impact on the Company's revenues for the year ending December 31, 2018. The impact to accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2018 was not material. As a result of applying the guidance prospectively with an adjustment to accumulated deficit in the Company's consolidated financial statements for the cumulative effect of adoption, revenues that would have been recognized on a sell-through basis for the amount of deferred revenue and profit remaining as of the adoption date will not be recognized in earnings for any period.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The amendments in this update include, among other things, a requirement to (1) measure equity investments (except equity method investments) at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income, with an option to measure equity investments that do not have readily determinable fair values at cost minus any impairment plus or minus any changes resulting from observable price changes; previously changes in fair value were recognized in other comprehensive income, and (2) separately present financial assets and liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset on the balance sheet or the accompanying notes to the financial statement. The amendments in this update were effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. The adoption of the amendments in this update did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08, Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net) to clarify the revenue recognition implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations. The amendments in this update clarify that when another party is involved in providing goods or services to a customer, an entity that is the principal has obtained control of a good or service before it is transferred to a customer, and provides indicators to assist an entity in determining whether it controls a specified good or service prior to the transfer to the customer. An entity that is the principal recognizes revenue in the gross amount of consideration to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for the specified good or service transferred to the customer, whereas an agent recognizes revenue in the amount of any fee or commission to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for arranging for the specified good or service to be provided by the other party. The amendments in this update were effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018, concurrent with and applied on the same basis as the new revenue recognition standard. The adoption of the amendments in this update did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments to eliminate the diversity in practice regarding the presentation and classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments, including, among other things, contingent consideration payments made following a business combination, proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims in the statement of cash flows, and debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs. Cash payments not made soon after the acquisition date up to the amount of the contingent consideration liability recognized at the acquisition date should be classified as financing activities and any excess payments should be classified as operating activities, whereas cash payments made soon after the acquisition date to settle the contingent consideration should be classified as investing activities and cash payments for debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs should be classified as financing activities. Cash proceeds received from settlement of insurance claims should be classified on the basis of the nature of the related losses. The amendments in this update should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented, unless impracticable, and if impracticable, would be applied prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. The amendments in this update were effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. The adoption of the amendments in this update did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated statements of cash flows for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting to provide clarity and reduce both (1) diversity in practice and (2) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. The amendments in this update require the Company to account for the effects of a modification in a stock-based award unless the fair value, vesting conditions and classification of the modified award is the same as those of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. If the modification does not affect any of the inputs to the valuation technique that the entity uses to value the award, the entity is not required to estimate the value immediately before and after the modification. The amendments in this update were effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 2018, including interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted in any interim period. The amendments in this update are applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. Since the Company has not had any modifications to stock-based awards that do not affect the inputs into the Black Scholes fair value calculation, the adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act. The Tax Act makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Staff, or SEC Staff, issued guidance in Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, or SAB 118, to address certain fact patterns where the accounting for changes in tax laws or tax rates under ASC Topic 740 is incomplete upon issuance of an entity's financial statements for the reporting period in which the Tax Act is enacted. As permitted in SAB 118, in 2017, the Company took a measurement period approach and reported certain provisional amounts, based on reasonable estimates, for certain tax effects in which the accounting under ASC 740 is incomplete. Such provisional amounts are subject to adjustment during a limited measurement period, not to extend one year beyond the tax law enactment date, until the accounting under ASC 740 is complete. The Company also made required supplemental disclosures in the notes to the 2017 consolidated financial statements to accompany the provisional amounts, including the reasons for the incomplete accounting, the additional information or analysis that is needed, and other information relevant to why the Company was not able to complete the accounting required under ASC 740 in a timely manner. For adjustments to previously reported provisional amounts made in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, refer to Note 10. Additional adjustments to such reported provisional amounts could result in a material adverse impact to the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations in 2018.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. The amendments in this update allow a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Act. The amendments in this update are effective for the Company beginning in fiscal 2019, including interim periods. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period or periods in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Act is recognized. The Company elected to early adopt this guidance in the three months ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018.
In March 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-05, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118. The amendments in this update amend the SEC paragraphs included in Topic 740 to be consistent with the guidance in SAB 118, which the Company adopted in the three months ended December 31, 2017, as described above.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, to expand the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. As a result, the accounting for share-based payment awards to nonemployees and employees will be substantially aligned by eliminating the need to measure nonemployee share-based awards at fair value on the earlier of performance commitment date or date performance is complete. Both employee and nonemployee share-based awards are now measured at grant-date fair value. The amendments in this update are effective for the Company beginning with fiscal year 2019, including interim periods, with early adoption permitted, but no earlier than the Company's adoption of Topic 606. The Company elected to early adopt the amendments in this update as of July 1, 2018, with the cumulative effect of the change recorded against accumulated deficit as of July 1, 2018. As the Company's nonemployee share-based awards are not significant, such adoption did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated accumulated deficit as of July 1, 2018.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The amendments in this update require a lessee to recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term for all leases with terms greater than twelve months. For leases less than twelve months, an entity is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. If a lessee makes this election, it should recognize lease expense for such leases generally on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company intends to make this election. Also, in July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, to provide an additional transition method. An entity can now elect not to present comparative financial information under Topic 842 if it recognizes a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings upon adoption. The Company also intends to make this election. The amendments in these update are effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 2019, including interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted. The Company has performed a preliminary assessment of the impact of the adoption of the amendments in these updates on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations for the Company's leases, which primarily consist of facility leases. Based on that assessment, the Company has determined that the right-of-use asset and lease liability, which is measured at the present value of future lease payments, are expected to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position. In addition, through the adoption date, the Company will complete its inventory of its leases and finalize its assessment of the impact of the adoption of Topic 842.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, to simplify the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. An entity no longer will determine goodwill impairment by calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by assigning the fair value of a reporting unit to all of its assets and liabilities as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination. Instead, under the amendments in this update, an entity should perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. The Board also eliminated the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment and, if it fails that qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. The amendments in this update are effective for the Company beginning with fiscal year 2020, including interim periods, with early adoption permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The adoption of the amendments in this update is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-09, Codification Improvements, to clarify the Codification and prevent unintended application of the guidance. An amendment to ASC 718-740, Compensation—Stock Compensation—Income Taxes, clarifies that excess tax benefits should be recognized in the period in which the amount of the deduction is determined. The transition and effective date guidance is based on the facts and circumstances of each amendment. The amendment identified above will be effective for the Company beginning with fiscal year 2019. The adoption of the amendments in this update is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases, to clarify on how to apply certain aspects of the new lease accounting standard. The amendments in this update, among other things, better articulates the requirement for a lessee's reassessment of lease classification as of the effective date of a modification, clarifies that a change to an index or rate for variable lease payments does not constitute a resolution of a contingency that would result in the remeasurement of lease payments, and requires entities that apply Topic 842 retrospectively to each reporting period and do not adopt the practical expedients to write off any prior unamortized initial direct costs that do not meet the definition under Topic 842 to equity. The amendments in this update have the same effective date and transition requirements as the new lease standard summarized above. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of Topic 842 on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations as stated above.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework— Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, to improve the fair value measurement reporting of financial instruments. The amendments in this update require, among other things, added disclosure of the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements. The amendments in this update eliminate, among other things, disclosure of the reasons for and amounts of transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 for assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and an entity's valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements. The amendments in this update will be effective for the Company beginning with fiscal year 2020, with early adoption permitted. Retrospective application is required for all amendments in this update except the added disclosures, which should be applied prospectively. The adoption of the amendments in this update is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles- Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract, to provide additional guidance on the accounting for costs of implementing cloud computing arrangements that are service contracts. The amendments in this update require the capitalization of implementation costs during the application development stage of such hosting arrangements and amortization of the expense over the term of the arrangement including any option to extend reasonably certain to be exercised or option to terminate reasonably certain not to be exercised. Capitalized implementation costs and amortization thereof are also required to be classified in the same line item in the statements of financial position, operations and cash flows associated with the hosting service fees. The amendments in this update will be effective for the Company beginning with fiscal year 2020, with early adoption permitted. Entities may select retrospective or prospective application to all implementation costs incurred after the adoption date. The adoption of the amendments in this update is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations.