Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2019
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes primarily relates to projected federal, state, and foreign income taxes. To determine the quarterly provision for income taxes, the Company uses an estimated annual effective tax rate, which is generally based on expected annual income and statutory tax rates in the various jurisdictions in which the Company operates. In addition, the tax effects of certain significant or unusual items are recognized discretely in the quarter during which they occur and can be a source of variability in the effective tax rates from quarter to quarter.
The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, under which deferred taxes are determined based on temporary differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using tax rates expected to be in effect during the years in which the temporary differences reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred taxes to the amount it believes is more likely than not to be realized. In making such determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence quarterly, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and recent financial performance.  Forming a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not required is difficult when there is negative evidence such as cumulative losses in recent years. Based upon the Company's review of all positive and negative evidence, the Company continues to have a valuation allowance on its state deferred taxes, certain of its federal deferred tax assets, and certain foreign deferred tax assets in jurisdictions where the Company has cumulative losses or otherwise is not expected to utilize certain tax attributes. The Company does not incur expense or benefit in certain tax free jurisdictions in which it operates.
The Company recorded an income tax benefit of $6.5 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019 and an income tax benefit of $1.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018.
The income tax benefit in the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, each primarily relates to the mix of pre-tax income among jurisdictions, discrete tax benefits related to stock-based compensation, and release of uncertain tax positions under ASC 740-10.

Income tax positions must meet a more-likely-than-not threshold to be recognized. Income tax positions that previously failed to meet the more-likely-than-not threshold are recognized in the first subsequent financial reporting period in which that threshold is met. Previously recognized tax positions that no longer meet the more-likely-than-not threshold are derecognized in the first financial reporting period in which that threshold is no longer met. The Company records potential penalties and interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits within the consolidated statements of operations as income tax expense.

During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the increase in unrecognized tax benefits was not material. The Company does not expect its unrecognized tax benefits to change significantly over the next 12 months. Accrued interest and penalties associated with uncertain tax positions as of March 31, 2019 were approximately $0.7 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
The Company is subject to federal and state income tax in the United States and is also subject to income tax in various states and foreign tax jurisdictions. At March 31, 2019, the Company’s tax years for 2014, 2013, and 2010 and forward are subject to examination by federal, state, and foreign tax authorities, respectively. The Company is under a routine compliance review by the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore for its 2016 and 2017 tax years. The Company does not expect these reviews to have a material effect on its consolidated financial position or results of operations.  In addition, the examination by the California Franchise Tax Board for the 2014 and 2015 tax years was closed during the quarter ended March 31, 2019 without any adjustments.
The Company's subsidiary in Singapore operates under certain tax incentives in Singapore, which are generally effective through March 2022, and are conditional upon meeting certain employment and investment thresholds in Singapore. Under the incentives, qualifying income derived from certain sales of the Company's integrated circuits is taxed at a concessionary rate over the incentive period, and there are reduced Singapore withholding taxes on certain intercompany royalties during the incentive period. Primarily because of the Company's Singapore net operating losses and a full valuation allowance in Singapore, the incentives did not have a material impact on the Company's income tax benefit in the three months ended March 31, 2019.