Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2015
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
MaxLinear, Inc. (the Company) was incorporated in Delaware in September 2003. The Company is a provider of integrated, radio-frequency and mixed-signal integrated circuits for broadband communication and data center, metro, and long-haul transport network applications whose customers include module makers, original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, and original design manufacturers, or ODMs, who incorporate the Company’s products in a wide range of electronic devices including cable and terrestrial and satellite set-top boxes, DOCSIS data and voice gateways, hybrid analog and digital televisions, satellite low-noise blocker transponders or outdoor units and optical modules for data center, metro, and long-haul transport network applications. The Company is a fabless semiconductor company focusing its resources on the design, sales and marketing of its products.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of MaxLinear, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and investments have been eliminated in consolidation.
The functional currency of certain foreign subsidiaries is the local currency. Accordingly, assets and liabilities of these foreign subsidiaries are translated at the current exchange rate at the balance sheet date and historical rates for equity. Revenue and expense components are translated at weighted average exchange rates in effect during the period. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency translation are included as a component of stockholders’ equity. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in the results of operations and, to date, have not been significant.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes of the consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 805, Business Combinations, in the accounting for its acquisitions. It requires the Company to recognize separately from goodwill the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed, at the acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date as well as contingent consideration, where applicable, its estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company records adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the consolidated statements of operations.
Costs to exit or restructure certain activities of an acquired company or the Company's internal operations are accounted for as termination and exit costs pursuant to ASC 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations, and are accounted for separately from the business combination. A liability for costs associated with an exit or disposal activity is recognized and measured at its fair value in the consolidated statement of operations in the period in which the liability is incurred. When estimating the fair value of facility restructuring activities, assumptions are applied regarding estimated sub-lease payments to be received, which can differ materially from actual results. This may require the Company to revise its initial estimates which may materially affect the results of operations and financial position in the period the revision is made.
For a given acquisition, the Company may identify certain pre-acquisition contingencies as of the acquisition date and may extend its review and evaluation of these pre-acquisition contingencies throughout the measurement period in order to obtain sufficient information to assess whether the Company includes these contingencies as a part of the fair value estimates of assets acquired and liabilities assumed and, if so, to determine their estimated amounts.
If the Company cannot reasonably determine the fair value of a pre-acquisition contingency (non-income tax related) by the end of the measurement period, which is generally the case given the nature of such matters, the Company will recognize an asset or a liability for such pre-acquisition contingency if: (i) it is probable that an asset existed or a liability had been incurred at the acquisition date and (ii) the amount of the asset or liability can be reasonably estimated. Subsequent to the measurement period, changes in estimates of such contingencies will affect earnings and could have a material effect on results of operations and financial position.
In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances assumed in connection with a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date. The Company reevaluates these items quarterly based upon facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date with any adjustments to the preliminary estimates being recorded to goodwill if identified within the measurement period. Subsequent to the measurement period or final determination of the tax allowance’s or contingency’s estimated value, whichever comes first, changes to these uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances will affect the provision for income taxes in the consolidated statement of operations and could have a material impact on the results of operations and financial position.
Acquisition of Entropic Communications, Inc.
On April 30, 2015, the Company completed its acquisition of Entropic Communications, Inc. (Entropic). Pursuant to the terms of the merger agreement dated as of February 3, 2015, by and among the Company, Entropic, and two wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company, all of the Entropic outstanding shares were converted into the right to receive consideration consisting of cash and shares of the Company’s Class A common stock. The Company paid an aggregate of $111.1 million and issued an aggregate of 20.4 million shares of the Company’s Class A common stock, to the stockholders of Entropic. In addition, the Company assumed all outstanding Entropic stock options and unvested restricted stock units that were held by continuing service providers (as defined in the merger agreement). The Company used Entropic’s cash and cash equivalents to fund a significant portion of the cash portion of the merger consideration and, to a lesser extent, its own cash and cash equivalents. The Company has made all of the material remaining disclosures required by ASC 805-10-50-2, Business Combinations. See Note 3.
In connection with the Company’s acquisition of Entropic and to address issues primarily relating to the integration of the Company and Entropic businesses, the Company terminated the employment of 87 Entropic employees during the year ended December 31, 2015. See Note 4.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are recorded at cost, which approximates market value.
The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and adjusts credit limits based on each customer's credit worthiness, as determined by the Company’s review of current credit information. The Company monitors collections and payments from its customers and maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon its historical experience, its anticipation of uncollectible accounts receivable and any specific customer collection issues that the Company has identified. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company had recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts of $0.2 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
The Company assesses the recoverability of its inventory based on assumptions about demand and market conditions. Forecasted demand is determined based on historical sales and expected future sales. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis and market reflects current replacement cost (e.g. net replacement value) which cannot exceed net realizable value or fall below net realizable value less an allowance for an approximately normal profit margin. The Company reduces its inventory to its lower of cost or market on a part-by-part basis to account for its obsolescence or lack of marketability. Reductions are calculated as the difference between the cost of inventory and its market value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. Once established, these adjustments are considered permanent and are not revised until the related inventory is sold or disposed of.
The Company classifies all investments as available-for-sale, as the sale of such investments may be required prior to maturity to implement management strategies. These investments are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses reported as accumulated other comprehensive income until realized. The cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization and accretion, as well as interest and dividends, are included in interest income. Realized gains and losses from the sale of available-for-sale investments, if any, are determined on a specific identification basis and are also included in interest income.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and compensation are considered to be representative of their respective fair value because of the short-term nature of these items. Investment securities, available-for-sale, are carried at fair value.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is carried at cost and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the assets, ranging from two to five years, using the straight-line method. Leasehold improvements are stated at cost and amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the lease term. Depreciation expense for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $8.7 million and $2.6 million, respectively.
Production masks with alternative future uses or discernible future benefits are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful life of two years. To determine if the production mask has alternative future uses or benefits, the Company evaluates risks associated with developing new technologies and capabilities, and the related risks associated with entering new markets. Production masks that do not meet the criteria for capitalization are expensed as research and development costs.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill is recorded as the difference, if any, between the aggregate consideration paid for an acquisition and the fair value of the acquired net tangible and intangible assets. Intangible assets represent purchased intangible assets including developed technology, in-process research and development, or IPR&D, technologies acquired or licensed from other companies, customer backlog and tradenames. Purchased intangible assets with definitive lives are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful lives. Technologies acquired or licensed from other companies, customer backlog and tradenames are capitalized and amortized over the lesser of the terms of the agreement, or estimated useful life. The Company capitalizes IPR&D projects acquired as part of a business combination. On completion of each project, IPR&D assets are reclassified to developed technology and amortized over their estimated useful lives.
Impairment of Goodwill and Long-Lived Assets
Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations accounted for under the purchase method. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment using a qualitative assessment, and subsequently the two-step method as needed. Step one is the identification of potential impairment. This involves comparing the fair value of each reporting unit, which the Company has determined to be the entity itself, with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying amount, the goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired and the second step of the impairment test is unnecessary. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The Company tests by reporting unit, goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment as of October 31 or more frequently if it believes indicators of impairment exist.
During development, IPR&D is not subject to amortization and is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The Company reviews indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment as of October 31, the date of its annual goodwill impairment review or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Recoverability of indefinite-lived intangible assets is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to the future discounted cash flows that asset is expected to generate. In certain cases, the Company utilizes the relief-from-royalty method when appropriate, and a fair value will be obtained based on analysis over the costs saved by owning the right instead of leasing it.
Once an IPR&D project is complete, it becomes a definite lived intangible asset and is evaluated for impairment both immediately prior to its change in classification and thereafter in accordance with the Company's policy for long-lived assets.
The Company regularly reviews the carrying amount of its long-lived assets, as well as the useful lives, to determine whether indicators of impairment may exist which warrant adjustments to carrying values or estimated useful lives. An impairment loss would be recognized when the sum of the expected future undiscounted net cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. Should impairment exist, the impairment loss would be measured based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset over the asset’s fair value.
During 2015, we performed our annual impairment assessment of goodwill and IPR&D assets on October 31, 2015. As a result, the Company determined there was no impairment associated with goodwill. On the other hand, the Company impaired $21.6 million in IPR&D assets. Refer to Goodwill and Intangible Assets, Note 5 for more information.
Revenue is generated from sales of the Company’s integrated circuits. The Company recognizes revenue when all of the following criteria are met: 1) there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, 2) delivery of goods has occurred, 3) the sales price is fixed or determinable and 4) collectability is reasonably assured. Title to product transfers to customers either when it is shipped to or received by the customer, based on the terms of the specific agreement with the customer.
Revenue is recorded based on the facts at the time of sale. Transactions for which the Company cannot reliably estimate the amount that will ultimately be collected at the time the product has shipped and title has transferred to the customer are deferred until the amount that is probable of collection can be determined. Items that are considered when determining the amounts that will be ultimately collected are: a customer’s overall creditworthiness and payment history; customer rights to return unsold product; customer rights to price protection; customer payment terms conditioned on sale or use of product by the customer; or extended payment terms granted to a customer.
A portion of the Company’s revenues are generated from sales made through distributors under agreements allowing for pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights of return. Revenues from sales through the Company’s distributors accounted for 13%, 28% and 29% of net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Pricing credits to the Company’s distributors may result from its price protection and unit rebate provisions, among other factors. These pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights prevent the Company from being able to reliably estimate the final sales price of the inventory sold and the amount of inventory that could be returned pursuant to these agreements. As a result, for sales through distributors, the Company has determined that it does not meet all of the required revenue recognition criteria at the time it delivers its products to distributors as the final sales price is not fixed or determinable.
For these distributor transactions, revenue is not recognized until product is shipped to the end customer and the amount that will ultimately be collected is fixed or determinable. Upon shipment of product to these distributors, title to the inventory transfers to the distributor and the distributor is invoiced, generally with 30 day terms. On shipments to the Company’s distributors where revenue is not recognized, the Company records a trade receivable for the selling price as there is a legally enforceable right to payment, relieving the inventory for the carrying value of goods shipped since legal title has passed to the distributor, and records the corresponding gross profit in the consolidated balance sheet as a component of deferred revenue and deferred profit, representing the difference between the receivable recorded and the cost of inventory shipped. Future pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights from the Company’s distributors may result in the realization of a different amount of profit included in the Company’s future consolidated statements of operations than the amount recorded as deferred profit in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
The Company records reductions in revenue for estimated pricing adjustments related to price protection agreements with the Company’s end customers in the same period that the related revenue is recorded. Price protection pricing adjustments are recorded at the time of sale as a reduction to revenue and an increase in the Company’s accrued liabilities. The amount of these reductions is based on specific criteria included in the agreements and other factors known at the time. The Company accrues 100% of potential price protection adjustments at the time of sale and does not apply a breakage factor. The Company de-recognizes the accrual for unclaimed price protection amounts as specific programs contractually end and when the Company believes unclaimed amounts are no longer subject to payment and will not be paid. See Note 4 for a summary of the Company's price protection activity.
The Company generally provides a warranty on its products for a period of one to three years. The Company makes estimates of product return rates and expected costs to replace the products under warranty at the time revenue is recognized based on historical warranty experience and any known product warranty issues. If actual return rates and/or replacement costs differ significantly from these estimates, adjustments to recognize additional cost of net revenue may be required in future periods. At December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company recorded $0.2 million, $0.1 million for warranty costs based on the Company’s analysis. At December 31, 2013, the Company recorded no warranty costs.
The Company operates in one segment as it has developed, marketed and sold primarily only one class of similar products, integrated radio frequency analog and mixed signal semiconductor solutions for broadband communication applications.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is its Chief Executive Officer. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. The Company has one business activity and there are no segment managers who are held accountable for operations, operating results and plans for products or components below the consolidated unit level. Accordingly, the Company reports as a single operating segment.
The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for equity incentive awards, including stock options, employee stock purchase rights, restricted stock units and restricted stock awards based on the grant date fair value of the award. The Company uses the Black-Scholes valuation model to calculate the fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase rights granted to employees. The Company calculates the fair value of restricted stock units and restricted stock awards based on the fair market value of its Class A common stock on the grant date. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the period during which the employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award, which is usually the vesting period. The Company recognizes compensation expense over the vesting period using the straight-line method and classifies these amounts in the statements of operations based on the department to which the related employee reports.
The Company accounts for stock options issued to non-employees in accordance with authoritative guidance for equity based payments to non-employees. Stock options issued to non-employees are accounted for at their estimated fair value determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of options granted to non-employees is re-measured as they vest, and the resulting increase in value, if any, is recognized as expense during the period the related services are rendered. The Company calculates the fair value of restricted stock units issued to non-employees based on the fair market value of our Class A common stock on the grant date and the resulting stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the period during which the non-employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award, which is usually the vesting period.
Research and Development
Costs incurred in connection with the development of the Company’s technology and future products are charged to research and development expense as incurred.
The Company provides for income taxes utilizing the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, deferred taxes represent the future tax consequences expected to occur when the reported amounts of assets and liabilities are recovered or paid. As such deferred taxes are presented as net and as noncurrent and presented net in accordance with ASU 2015-17, which was adopted early for the year ended December 31, 2015. The provision for income taxes generally represents income taxes paid or payable for the current year plus the change in deferred taxes during the year. Deferred taxes result from the differences between the financial and tax bases of the Company’s assets and liabilities and are adjusted for changes in tax rates and tax laws when changes are enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when a judgment is made that is considered more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. A decision to record a valuation allowance results in an increase in income tax expense or a decrease in income tax benefit. If the valuation allowance is released in a future period, income tax expense will be reduced accordingly.
The calculation of tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex global tax regulations. The impact of an uncertain income tax position is recognized at the largest amount that is “more likely than not” to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. If the estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would result.
In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. The Company will continue to assess the need for a valuation allowance on the deferred tax asset by evaluating both positive and negative evidence that may exist. Any adjustment to the net deferred tax asset valuation allowance would be recorded in the income statement for the period that the adjustment is determined to be required.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity (net assets) of a business entity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from nonowner sources. Other comprehensive income (loss) includes certain changes in equity that are excluded from net income (loss), such as unrealized holding gains and losses on available-for-sale investments, net of tax, and translation gains and losses.
Net Income (Loss) per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to the Company by the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period. For diluted net income (loss) per share, net income attributable to the Company is divided by the sum of the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding and the potential number of shares of dilutive Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period.
Litigation and Settlement Costs
Legal costs are expensed as incurred. The Company is involved in disputes, litigation and other legal actions in the ordinary course of business. The Company continually evaluates uncertainties associated with litigation and records a charge equal to at least the minimum estimated liability for a loss contingency when both of the following conditions are met: (i) information available prior to issuance of the financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset had been impaired or a liability had been incurred at the date of the financial statements and (ii) the loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued new accounting guidance related to revenue recognition. This new standard will replace all current U.S. GAAP guidance on this topic and eliminate all industry-specific guidance. The new revenue recognition standard provides a unified model to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The core principle is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration for which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This guidance will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018 and can be applied either retrospectively to each period presented or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The Company is evaluating the impact of adopting this new accounting standard on its financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued new accounting guidance related to the disclosures around going concern. The new standard provides guidance around management's responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity's ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. This guidance will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard to significantly impact its financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory, which requires inventory to be subsequently measured using the lower of cost and net realizable value, and thereby eliminating the market value approach. The FASB has defined net realizable value to be the “estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation.” ASU 2015-11 is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and is applied prospectively. We are currently evaluating the impact that this guidance will have on our financial statements and disclosure.
In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-16, Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments, which affects entities that have reported provisional amounts for items in a business combination for which the accounting is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the combination occurs and during the measurement period have an adjustment to provisional amounts recognized. Under this ASU, acquirers must recognize measurement-period adjustments in the period in which they determine the amounts, including the effect on earnings of any amounts they would have recorded in previous periods if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date. For public business entities, the new standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted for all entities. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard to significantly impact its financial statements; however, disclosures in accordance with ASU 2015-16 are made within Note 3, Business Combinations.
The FASB issued ASU 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes in November 2015. Currently, entities are required to report deferred taxes for each jurisdiction as a net current asset or liability and net noncurrent asset or liability. With the implementation of this ASU, deferred tax assets and liabilities and the related valuation allowance are classified as noncurrent on the balance sheet. This new guidance will be effective for public business entities in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those years, i.e. in the first quarter for 2017. Early adoption is permitted. As a result, the Company has opted for early adoption of ASU 2015-17 on a prospective basis during the year ended December 31, 2015, and the related disclosures are made within Note 9, Income Taxes. The impact of adoption to the prior year is insignificant due to the Company’s valuation allowance.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef