Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
MaxLinear, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in September 2003. MaxLinear, Inc., together with its directly and indirectly wholly-owned subsidiaries, collectively referred to as MaxLinear, or the Company, is a provider of communications systems-on-chip, or SoC, solutions used in broadband, mobile and wireline infrastructure, data center, and industrial and multi-market applications. MaxLinear is a fabless integrated circuit design company whose products integrate all or substantial portions of a high-speed communication system, including radio frequency, or RF, high-performance analog, mixed-signal, digital signal processing, security engines, data compression and networking layers, and power management. MaxLinear’s customers include electronics distributors, module makers, original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, and original design manufacturers, or ODMs, who incorporate the Company’s products in a wide range of electronic devices, including cable Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications, or DOCSIS, fiber and DSL broadband modems and gateways; Wi-Fi and wireline routers for home networking; radio transceivers and modems for 4G/5G base-station and backhaul infrastructure; fiber-optic modules for data center, metro, and long-haul transport networks; as well as power management and interface products used in these and many other markets.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of MaxLinear, Inc. and its directly and indirectly wholly- owned subsidiaries and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP. All intercompany transactions and investments have been eliminated in consolidation.
The functional currency of certain foreign subsidiaries is the local currency. Accordingly, assets and liabilities of these foreign subsidiaries are translated at the current exchange rate at the balance sheet date and historical rates for equity. Revenue and expense components are translated at weighted average exchange rates in effect during the period. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency translation are included as a component of stockholders’ equity. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in the results of operations, and to date, have not been material.
Use of Estimates and Significant Risks and Uncertainties
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes of the consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Inflation, and uncertainty in customer demand and the worldwide economy has continued, and the Company may experience continued volatility in its sales and revenues in the near future. The Company’s management believes an economic downturn and inventory oversupply due to changes in customer demand will add to volatility in managing the business. However, the magnitude of such volatility on the Company’s business and its duration is uncertain and cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.
The Company also believes that its $188.4 million of cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2022 will be sufficient to fund its projected operating requirements for at least the next twelve months, excluding its pending acquisition of Silicon Motion which it intends to fund with proceeds from additional debt (Note 3). The Company’s future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including the timing of the closing of the pending transaction to acquire Silicon Motion, changes in revenue, the expansion of engineering, sales and marketing activities, the timing and extent of expansion into new territories, the timing of introductions of new products and enhancements to existing products, the continuing market acceptance of the Company’s products and potential material investments in, or acquisitions of, complementary businesses, services or technologies. Additional funds may not be available on terms favorable to the Company or at all. If the Company is unable to raise additional funds when needed, it may not be able to sustain its operations or execute its strategic plans.

The Company is not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require an update to its estimates or adjustments to the carrying value of its assets and liabilities as of February 1, 2023, the issuance date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Business Combinations
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 805, Business Combinations, in accounting for its acquisitions. It requires the Company to recognize separately from goodwill the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed, at the acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the acquisition date fair values of the net assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date as well as contingent consideration, where applicable, its estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company records adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the consolidated statements of operations.

Costs to exit or restructure certain activities of an acquired company or the Company’s internal operations are accounted for as termination and exit costs pursuant to ASC 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations, and are accounted for separately from the business combination. A liability for costs associated with an exit or disposal activity is recognized and measured at its fair value in the consolidated statements of operations in the period in which the liability is incurred.

For a given acquisition, the Company may identify certain pre-acquisition contingencies as of the acquisition date and may extend its review, evaluation, and adjustment of these pre-acquisition contingencies throughout the measurement period in order to obtain sufficient information to assess whether the Company includes these contingencies as a part of the fair value estimates of assets acquired and liabilities assumed and, if so, to determine their estimated amounts. A pre-acquisition contingency (non-income tax related) is only recognized as an asset or a liability if: (i) it is probable that an asset existed or a liability had been incurred at the acquisition date and (ii) the amount of the asset or liability can be reasonably estimated. Subsequent to the measurement period, changes in estimates of such contingencies will affect earnings and could have a material effect on the Company's results of operations and financial position.

In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax-related valuation allowances assumed, if any, in connection with a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date. The Company re-evaluates these items quarterly based upon facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date with any adjustments to the preliminary estimates being recorded to goodwill if identified within the measurement period. Subsequent to the end of the measurement period or final determination of the estimated value of the tax allowance or contingency, whichever comes first, changes to these uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances will affect the income tax provision (benefit) in the consolidated statements of operations and could have a material impact on the results of operations and financial position.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are recorded at cost, which approximates market value.
Accounts Receivable
The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and assesses each customer’s credit worthiness. The Company monitors collections and payments from its customers and maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts, which is based upon applying an expected credit loss rate to receivables based on the historical loss rate from similar high risk customers adjusted for current conditions, including any specific customer collection issues identified, and forecasts of economic conditions. Delinquent account balances are written off after management has determined that the likelihood of collection is remote. The allowance for credit losses as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 and the activity in this account, including the current-period provision for expected credit losses for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, were not material.
The Company assesses the recoverability of its inventory based on assumptions about demand and market conditions. Forecasted demand is determined based on historical sales and expected future sales. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is computed using standard cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis and net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation. The Company reduces its inventory to the lower of its cost or net realizable value on a part-by-part basis to account for obsolescence or lack of marketability. Reductions are calculated as the difference between the cost of
inventory and its net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand, market conditions and costs. Once established, these adjustments are considered permanent and are not revised until the related inventory is sold or disposed of.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and compensation are considered to be representative of their respective fair values because of the short-term nature of these accounts.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is carried at cost and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the assets, ranging from two to five years, using the straight-line method. Leasehold improvements are stated at cost and amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the lease term.
Production Masks
Production masks with alternative future uses or discernible future benefits are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful lives of two to five years. To determine if a production mask has alternative future uses or benefits, the Company evaluates risks associated with developing new technologies and capabilities, and the related risks associated with entering new markets. Production masks that do not meet the criteria for capitalization are expensed as research and development costs.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations accounted for under the acquisition method. Intangible assets represent purchased intangible assets including developed technology, in-process research and development, or IPR&D, technologies acquired or licensed from other companies, customer relationships, non-compete covenants, backlog, and trademarks and tradenames. Purchased finite-lived intangible assets are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful lives. Technologies acquired or licensed from other companies, customer relationships, non-compete covenants, backlog, and trademarks and tradenames are capitalized and amortized over the lesser of the terms of the agreement, or estimated useful life. The Company capitalizes IPR&D projects acquired as part of a business combination. On completion of each project, IPR&D assets are reclassified to developed technology and amortized over their estimated useful lives.
Impairment of Goodwill and Long-Lived Assets
Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment using either a qualitative assessment, and/or quantitative assessment, which is based on comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, a goodwill impairment loss is recorded. The Company tests by reporting unit, goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment as of October 31 each year or more frequently if it believes indicators of impairment exist.
During development, IPR&D is not subject to amortization and is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The Company reviews indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment using a qualitative assessment, followed by a quantitative assessment, as needed, each year as of October 31, the date of its annual goodwill impairment review, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Recoverability of indefinite-lived intangible assets is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its fair value. In certain cases, the Company utilizes the relief-from-royalty method when appropriate, and a fair value will be obtained based on analysis over the costs saved by owning the right instead of leasing it. 
Once an IPR&D project is complete, it becomes a finite-lived intangible asset and is evaluated for impairment both immediately prior to its change in classification and thereafter in accordance with the Company’s policy for long-lived assets.
The Company regularly reviews the carrying amount of its long-lived assets subject to depreciation and amortization, as well as the useful lives, to determine whether indicators of impairment may exist which warrant adjustments to carrying values or estimated useful lives. An impairment loss would be recognized when the sum of the expected future undiscounted net cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. Should impairment exist, the impairment loss would be measured based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset over the asset’s fair value.
During the years 2022, 2021, and 2020, the Company recorded impairment of intangible assets of $2.8 million, $0 and $0.1 million, respectively. Refer to Goodwill and Intangible Assets, Note 5 for more information.
Revenue Recognition
The Company’s revenue is primarily generated from sales of the Company’s integrated circuits to electronics distributors, module makers, OEMs, and ODMs under individual customer purchase orders, some of which have underlying master sales agreements that specify terms governing the product sales. The Company recognizes such revenue at the point in time when control of the products is transferred to the customer at the estimated net consideration for which collection is probable, taking into account the customer’s rights to price protection, other pricing credits, unit rebates, and rights to return unsold product. Transfer of control occurs either when products are shipped to or received by the distributor or direct customer, based on the terms of the specific agreement with the customer, if the Company has a present right to payment and transfer of legal title and the risks and rewards of ownership to the customer has occurred. For most of the Company's product sales, transfer of control occurs upon shipment to the distributor or direct customer. In assessing whether collection of consideration from a customer is probable, the Company considers the customer’s ability and intention to pay that amount of consideration when it is due. Payment of invoices is due as specified in the underlying customer agreement, typically 30 days from the invoice date, which occurs on the date of transfer of control of the products to the customer. Since payment terms are less than a year, the Company has elected the practical expedient and does not assess whether a customer contract has a significant financing component.
A five-step approach is applied in the recognition of revenue: (1) identify the contract with a customer, (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determine the transaction price, (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (5) recognize revenue when the Company satisfies a performance obligation. Customer purchase orders plus the underlying master sales agreements are considered to be contracts with the customer for purposes of applying the five-step approach.
Pricing adjustments and estimates of returns under contractual stock rotation rights are treated as variable consideration for purposes of determining the transaction price, and are estimated at the time control transfers using the expected value method based on the Company’s analysis of actual price adjustment claims by distributors and historical product return rates, and then reassessed at the end of each reporting period. The Company also considers whether any variable consideration is constrained, since such amounts for which it is probable that a significant reversal will occur when the contingency is subsequently resolved are required to be excluded from revenues. Price adjustments are finalized at the time the products are sold through to the end customer and the distributor or end customer submits a claim to reduce the sale price to a pre-approved net price. Stock rotation allowances are capped at a fixed percentage of the Company’s sales to a distributor for a period of time, up to six months, as specified in the individual distributor contract. If the Company’s current estimates of such credits and rights are materially inaccurate, it may result in adjustments that affect future revenues and gross profits. Returns under the Company’s general assurance warranty of products for a period of one to three years have not been material and warranty-related services are not considered a separate performance obligation under the customer contracts. Most of the Company’s customers resell the Company’s product as part of their product and thus are tax-exempt; however, to the extent the Company collects and remits taxes on product sales from customers, it has elected to exclude from the measurement of transaction price such taxes.
Each distinct promise to transfer products is considered to be an identified performance obligation for which revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of the products to the customer. Although customers may place orders for products to be delivered on multiple dates that may be in different quarterly reporting periods, all of the orders are scheduled within one year from the order date. The Company has opted to not disclose the portion of revenues allocated to partially unsatisfied performance obligations, which represent products to be shipped within 12 months under open customer purchase orders, at the end of the current reporting period. The Company has also elected to record sales commissions when incurred, as the period over which the sales commission asset that would have been recognized is less than one year.
Customer contract liabilities consist primarily of obligations to deliver rebates to customers in the form of units of products which are included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. Other obligations to customers consist of estimates of price protection rights offered to the Company’s end customers, which are included in accrued price protection liability in the consolidated balance sheets, as well as price adjustments expected to be claimed by the distributor upon sell-through of the products to their customers, and amounts expected to be returned by distributors under stock rotation rights, which are included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. The Company also records a right of return asset, consisting of amounts representing the products the Company expects to receive from customers in returns, which is included in inventory in the consolidated balance sheets, and is typically
settled within six months of transfer of control to the customer, or the period over which stock rotation rights are based. Upon lapse of the time period for stock rotations, or the contractual end to price protection and rebate programs, which is approximately one to two years, and when the Company believes unclaimed amounts are no longer subject to payment and will not be paid, any remaining asset or liability is derecognized by an offsetting entry to cost of net revenue and net revenue. For additional disclosures regarding contract liabilities and other obligations to customers, see Note 12.
The Company assesses customer accounts receivable and contract assets for impairment in accordance with ASC 310-10-35.
The Company generally provides a warranty on its products for a period of one to three years. The Company makes estimates of product return rates and expected costs to replace the products under warranty at the time revenue is recognized based on historical warranty experience and any known product warranty issues. If actual return rates and/or replacement costs differ significantly from these estimates, adjustments to recognize additional warranty expenses in cost of net revenue may be required in future periods. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company has warranty reserves of $0.5 million and $0.8 million, respectively, based on the Company’s estimates.
Segment Information
The Company operates under one segment as it has developed, marketed and sold primarily only one class of similar products, radio-frequency, high-performance analog and mixed-signal communications system-on-chip solutions for the connected home, wired and wireless infrastructure markets and industrial and multi-market applications.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is its Chief Executive Officer. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. The Company has one business activity and there are no segment managers who are held accountable for operations, operating results and plans for products or components below the consolidated unit level. Accordingly, the Company reports under a single operating segment.
Stock-based Compensation
The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for equity incentive awards, including restricted stock units, employee stock purchase rights and stock options based on the grant date fair value of the award. The Company calculates the fair value of restricted stock units and performance-based restricted stock units based on the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the grant date. Stock-based compensation expense is then determined based on the number of restricted stock units that are expected to vest; for performance-based restricted stock units, this is the number of units that are expected to vest during the performance period if it is probable that the Company will achieve the performance metrics specified in the underlying award agreement. The Company uses the Black-Scholes valuation model to calculate the fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase rights granted to employees. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the period during which the employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award, which is usually the vesting period. The Company recognizes compensation expense over the vesting period using the straight-line method and classifies these amounts in the consolidated statements of operations based on the department to which the related employee reports.
Research and Development
Costs incurred in connection with the development of the Company’s technology and future products are charged to research and development expense as incurred.
The Company’s leases primarily consist of facility leases which are classified as operating leases. The Company assesses whether an arrangement contains a lease at inception. The Company recognizes a lease liability to make contractual payments under all leases with terms greater than twelve months and a corresponding right-of-use asset, representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the lease payments over the lease term using the collateralized incremental borrowing rate when the implicit rate is unknown. Options to extend or terminate
a lease are included in the lease term when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise such an option. The right-of-use asset is initially measured as the contractual lease liability plus any initial direct costs and prepaid lease payments made, less any lease incentives. Upon adoption of ASC 842 on January 1, 2019, the carrying value of lease-related restructuring liabilities for certain restructured leases existing at that date was offset against the related right-of-use assets. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Upon adoption of ASC 842, the Company elected certain practical expedients and accordingly has (1) carried forward its prior assessments of (a) whether existing contracts on the January 1, 2019 adoption date contain leases, (b) classification of leases as operating or financing and (c) initial direct costs for existing leases and (2) considered hindsight in determining the lease term and assessing impairment of the right-of-use-asset. In addition, the Company used a portfolio approach for its facility leases when making judgments and estimates, such as the discount rate.
Leased right-of-use assets are subject to impairment testing as a long-lived asset at the asset-group level. The Company monitors its long-lived assets for indicators of impairment. As the Company’s leased right-of-use assets primarily relate to facility leases, early abandonment of all or part of a facility as part of a restructuring plan is typically an indicator of impairment. If impairment indicators are present, the Company tests whether the carrying amount of the leased right-of-use asset is recoverable including consideration of sublease income, and if not recoverable, measures impairment loss for the right-of-use asset or asset group.
Pension and Other Defined Benefit Retirement Obligations
The costs of pension and certain other defined benefit employee retirement benefits are required to be recognized based upon actuarial valuations. The related net retirement benefit obligation is recognized as the excess of the projected benefit obligation over the fair value of the plan assets. In measuring the retirement benefit obligation, the discount rate, expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, and long-term rate of salary increase are the most significant assumptions. Retirement benefit costs primarily represent the increase in the actuarial present value of the retirement benefit obligation.
Income Taxes
The Company provides for income taxes utilizing the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, deferred taxes represent the future tax consequences expected to occur when the reported amounts of assets and liabilities are recovered or paid. Deferred taxes are presented net as noncurrent. The provision for income taxes generally represents income taxes paid or payable for the current year plus the change in deferred taxes during the year. Deferred taxes result from the differences between the financial and tax bases of the Company’s assets and liabilities and are adjusted for changes in tax rates and tax laws when changes are enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when a judgment is made that is considered more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. A decision to record a valuation allowance results in an increase in income tax expense or a decrease in income tax benefit. If the valuation allowance is released in a future period, income tax expense will be reduced accordingly.
The calculation of tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex global tax regulations. The impact of an uncertain income tax position is recognized at the largest amount that is “more likely than not” to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. If the estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would result.
In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. The Company continually assesses the need for a valuation allowance on the deferred tax asset by evaluating both positive and negative evidence that may exist. Any adjustment to the net deferred tax asset valuation allowance would be recorded in the consolidated statement of operations for the period that the adjustment is determined to be required.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act, was enacted into U.S. tax law. In 2018, the Company made an accounting policy election to treat Global Intangible Low Taxed Income in accordance with the Tax Act as a period cost.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity (net assets) of a business entity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. Other comprehensive income (loss) includes certain changes in equity that are excluded from net income (loss), net of tax, such as foreign currency translation gains and losses and changes in fair value of projected benefit obligations for defined benefit plans.
Litigation and Settlement Costs
Legal costs are expensed as incurred. The Company is involved in disputes, litigation and other legal actions in the ordinary course of business. The Company continually evaluates uncertainties associated with litigation and records a charge equal to at least the minimum estimated liability for a loss contingency when both of the following conditions are met: (i) information available prior to issuance of the financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset had been impaired or a liability had been incurred at the date of the financial statements and (ii) the loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, to provide specific guidance to eliminate diversity in practice on how to recognize and measure acquired contract assets and contract liabilities from revenue contracts from customers in a business combination consistent with revenue contracts with customers not acquired in an acquisition. The amendments in this update provide that the acquirer should consider the terms of the acquired contracts, such as timing of payment, identify each performance obligation in the contracts, and allocate the total transaction price to each identified performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis as of contract inception (that is, the date the acquiree entered into the contracts) or contract modification to determine what should be recorded at the acquisition date. These amendments are effective for the Company in 2023. The impact of the adoption of the amendments in this update will depend on the magnitude of any customer contracts assumed in a business combination in 2023 and beyond.