Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2014
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
MaxLinear, Inc. (the Company) was incorporated in Delaware in September 2003. The Company is a provider of integrated, radio-frequency and mixed-signal integrated circuits for broadband communication and data center, metro, and long-haul transport network applications whose customers include module makers, original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, and original design manufacturers, or ODMs, who incorporate the Company’s products in a wide range of electronic devices including cable and terrestrial and satellite set top boxes, DOCSIS data and voice gateways, hybrid analog and digital televisions, satellite low-noise blocker transponders or outdoor units and optical modules for data center, metro, and long-haul transport network applications. The Company is a fabless semiconductor company focusing its resources on the design, sales and marketing of its products.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of MaxLinear, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and investments have been eliminated in consolidation.
The functional currency of certain foreign subsidiaries is the local currency. Accordingly, assets and liabilities of these foreign subsidiaries are translated at the current exchange rate at the balance sheet date and historical rates for equity. Revenue and expense components are translated at weighted average exchange rates in effect during the period. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency translation are included as a component of stockholders’ equity. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in the results of operations and, to date, have not been significant.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes of the consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are recorded at cost, which approximates market value.
Accounts Receivable
The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and adjusts credit limits based on each customer's credit worthiness, as determined by the Company’s review of current credit information. The Company monitors collections and payments from its customers and maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon its historical experience, its anticipation of uncollectible accounts receivable and any specific customer collection issues that the Company has identified. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company had recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts of $0.1 million.
The Company assesses the recoverability of its inventory based on assumptions about demand and market conditions. Forecasted demand is determined based on historical sales and expected future sales. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis and market reflects current replacement cost (e.g. net replacement value) which cannot exceed net realizable value or fall below net realizable value less an allowance for an approximately normal profit margin. The Company reduces its inventory to its lower of cost or market on a part-by-part basis to account for its obsolescence or lack of marketability. Reductions are calculated as the difference between the cost of inventory and its market value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. Once established, these adjustments are considered permanent and are not revised until the related inventory is sold or disposed of.
Investments, Available-for-Sale
The Company classifies all investments as available-for-sale, as the sale of such investments may be required prior to maturity to implement management strategies. These investments are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses reported as accumulated other comprehensive income until realized. The cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization and accretion, as well as interest and dividends, are included in interest income. Realized gains and losses from the sale of available-for-sale investments, if any, are determined on a specific identification basis and are also included in interest income.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and compensation are considered to be representative of their respective fair value because of the short-term nature of these items. Investment securities, available-for-sale, are carried at fair value. Based on the borrowing rates currently available to the Company for loans with similar terms, the Company believes the fair value of long-term capital lease obligations approximates its carrying value.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is carried at cost and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the assets, ranging from two to five years, using the straight-line method. Leasehold improvements are stated at cost and amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the lease term.
Production Masks
Production masks with alternative future uses or discernible future benefits are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful life of two years. To determine if the production mask has alternative future uses or benefits, the Company evaluates risks associated with developing new technologies and capabilities, and the related risks associated with entering new markets. Production masks that do not meet the criteria for capitalization are expensed as research and development costs.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill is recorded as the difference, if any, between the aggregate consideration paid for an acquisition and the fair value of the acquired net tangible and intangible assets. Intangible assets represent purchased intangible assets including developed technology and in-process research and development, or IPR&D, and technologies acquired or licensed from other companies. Purchased intangible assets with definitive lives are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful life. Technologies acquired or licensed from other companies are capitalized and amortized over the greater of the terms of the agreement, or estimated useful life, not to exceed three years. The Company capitalizes IPR&D projects acquired as part of a business combination. On completion of each project, IPR&D assets are reclassified to developed technology and amortized over their estimated useful lives.
Impairment of Goodwill and Long-Lived Assets
Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations accounted for under the purchase method. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment using a two-step method. Step one is the identification of potential impairment. This involves comparing the fair value of each reporting unit, which the Company has determined to be the entity itself, with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying amount, the goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired and the second step of the impairment test is unnecessary. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The Company tests by reporting unit, goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment at October 31 or more frequently if it believes indicators of impairment exist.
During development, IPR&D is not subject to amortization and is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The Company reviews indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment as of October 31, the date of its annual goodwill impairment review or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Recoverability of indefinite-lived intangible assets is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to the future discounted cash flows that asset is expected to generate. Once an IPR&D project is complete, it becomes a definite lived intangible asset and is evaluated for impairment in accordance with the Company's policy for long-lived assets.
The Company regularly reviews the carrying amount of its long-lived assets, as well as the useful lives, to determine whether indicators of impairment may exist which warrant adjustments to carrying values or estimated useful lives. An impairment loss would be recognized when the sum of the expected future undiscounted net cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. Should impairment exist, the impairment loss would be measured based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset over the asset’s fair value.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is generated from sales of the Company’s integrated circuits. The Company recognizes revenue when all of the following criteria are met: 1) there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, 2) delivery of goods has occurred, 3) the sales price is fixed or determinable and 4) collectibility is reasonably assured. Title to product transfers to customers either when it is shipped to or received by the customer, based on the terms of the specific agreement with the customer.
Revenue is recorded based on the facts at the time of sale. Transactions for which the Company cannot reliably estimate the amount that will ultimately be collected at the time the product has shipped and title has transferred to the customer are deferred until the amount that is probable of collection can be determined. Items that are considered when determining the amounts that will be ultimately collected are: a customer’s overall creditworthiness and payment history; customer rights to return unsold product; customer rights to price protection; customer payment terms conditioned on sale or use of product by the customer; or extended payment terms granted to a customer.
A portion of the Company’s revenues are generated from sales made through distributors under agreements allowing for pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights of return. Revenues from sales through the Company’s distributors accounted for 28% and 29% of net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively. Pricing credits to the Company’s distributors may result from its price protection and unit rebate provisions, among other factors. These pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights prevent the Company from being able to reliably estimate the final sales price of the inventory sold and the amount of inventory that could be returned pursuant to these agreements. As a result, for sales through distributors, the Company has determined that it does not meet all of the required revenue recognition criteria at the time it delivers its products to distributors as the final sales price is not fixed or determinable.
For these distributor transactions, revenue is not recognized until product is shipped to the end customer and the amount that will ultimately be collected is fixed or determinable. Upon shipment of product to these distributors, title to the inventory transfers to the distributor and the distributor is invoiced, generally with 30 day terms. On shipments to the Company’s distributors where revenue is not recognized, the Company records a trade receivable for the selling price as there is a legally enforceable right to payment, relieving the inventory for the carrying value of goods shipped since legal title has passed to the distributor, and records the corresponding gross profit in the consolidated balance sheet as a component of deferred revenue and deferred profit, representing the difference between the receivable recorded and the cost of inventory shipped. Future pricing credits and/or stock rotation rights from the Company’s distributors may result in the realization of a different amount of profit included in the Company’s future consolidated statements of operations than the amount recorded as deferred profit in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
The Company records reductions in revenue for estimated pricing adjustments related to price protection agreements with the Company’s end customers in the same period that the related revenue is recorded. Price protection pricing adjustments are recorded at the time of sale as a reduction to revenue and an increase in the Company’s accrued liabilities. The amount of these reductions is based on specific criteria included in the agreements and other factors known at the time. The Company accrues 100% of potential price protection adjustments at the time of sale and does not apply a breakage factor. The Company reverses the accrual for unclaimed price protection amounts as specific programs contractually end and when the Company believes unclaimed amounts are no longer subject to payment and will not be paid. See Note 4 for a summary of the Company's price protection activity.
Stock Repurchase
The Company records the excess of repurchase price over par value to accumulated deficit upon repurchase and retirement of shares of its Class A common stock and Class B common stock in accordance with the accounting standard for equity.
The Company generally provides a warranty on its products for a period of one to three years. The Company makes estimates of product return rates and expected costs to replace the products under warranty at the time revenue is recognized based on historical warranty experience and any known product warranty issues. If actual return rates and/or replacement costs differ significantly from these estimates, adjustments to recognize additional cost of net revenue may be required in future periods. At December 31, 2014, $0.1 million for warranty costs was recorded based on the Company’s analysis. At December 2013, no accrual for warranty costs was recorded based on the Company’s analysis.
Segment Information
The Company operates in one segment as it has developed, marketed and sold primarily only one class of similar products, integrated radio frequency analog and mixed signal semiconductor solutions for broadband communication applications.
The Company’s chief operating decision-maker is its chief executive officer, who reviews operating results on an aggregate basis and manages the Company’s operations as a single operating segment.
The Company has assessed its products on an individual basis and determined that they are similar based on the following reasons:
The Company’s portfolio of products share similar economic characteristics as they have a similar long term business model, operate at gross margins similar to the Company’s consolidated gross margin, and have similar research and development expenses and similar selling, general and administrative expenses;
The causes for variation within the Company’s portfolio of products are the same and include factors such as (i) life cycle and price and cost fluctuations, (ii) number of competitors, (iii) extent of product differentiation relative to the Company’s competition, and (iv) the sensitivity to the overall cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry;
The Company’s product portfolio and development roadmap is managed by a common Vice President and General Manager, and the technology across products within the portfolio is so similar that the Company’s engineering resources are highly fungible and commonly work across product families;
The vast majority of the Company’s integrated circuits all use the same standard CMOS manufacturing processes and provide the same fundamental functionality in the electronics platforms in which they reside;
The integrated circuits marketed are sold to one type of customer: manufacturers of wired and wireless communications equipment, which incorporate the Company’s integrated circuits into their electronic products; and
All of the Company’s integrated circuits are sold through a centralized sales force and common distributors.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Significant Customers
Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company limits its exposure to credit loss by placing its cash with high credit quality financial institutions. At times, such deposits may be in excess of insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash and cash equivalents.
The Company markets its products and services to manufacturers of wired and wireless communications equipment throughout the world. The Company makes periodic evaluations of the credit worthiness of its customers and does not require collateral for credit sales.
Customers greater than 10% of net revenue for each of the periods are as follows:
Years Ended December 31,
Percentage of total net revenue



* Represents less than 10% of the net revenue for the respective period.
1Includes sales to Motorola Home, which was acquired by Arris in April 2013, for all periods presented.
Products shipped to international destinations representing greater than 10% of net revenue for each of the periods are as follows:
Years Ended December 31,
Percentage of total net revenue





The determination of which country a particular sale is allocated to is based on the destination of the product shipment.
Balances greater than 10% of accounts receivable are as follows:
December 31,
Percentage of gross accounts receivable:
Pegatron Corporation1
Sernet Technologies Corporation

Kinpo International Limited

Moly Tech Limited

* Represents less than 10% of the gross accounts receivable for the respective period end.
1Includes sales to Unihan, which was acquired by Pegatron in November 2013, for all periods presented.
Stock-based Compensation
The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for equity incentive awards, including stock options, employee stock purchase rights, restricted stock units and restricted stock awards based on the grant date fair value of the award. The Company uses the Black-Scholes valuation model to calculate the fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase rights granted to employees. The Company calculates the fair value of restricted stock units and restricted stock awards based on the fair market value of its Class A common stock on the grant date. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the period during which the employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award, which is usually the vesting period. The Company recognizes compensation expense over the vesting period using the straight-line method and classifies these amounts in the statements of operations based on the department to which the related employee reports.
The Company accounts for stock options issued to non-employees in accordance with authoritative guidance for equity based payments to non-employees. Stock options issued to non-employees are accounted for at their estimated fair value determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of options granted to non-employees is re-measured as they vest, and the resulting increase in value, if any, is recognized as expense during the period the related services are rendered. The Company calculates the fair value of restricted stock units issued to non-employees based on the fair market value of our Class A common stock on the grant date and the resulting stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the period during which the non-employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award, which is usually the vesting period.
Research and Development
Costs incurred in connection with the development of the Company’s technology and future products are charged to research and development expense as incurred.
Income Taxes
The Company provides for income taxes utilizing the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, deferred taxes represent the future tax consequences expected to occur when the reported amounts of assets and liabilities are recovered or paid. The provision for income taxes generally represents income taxes paid or payable for the current year plus the change in deferred taxes during the year. Deferred taxes result from the differences between the financial and tax bases of the Company’s assets and liabilities and are adjusted for changes in tax rates and tax laws when changes are enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when a judgment is made that is considered more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. A decision to record a valuation allowance results in an increase in income tax expense or a decrease in income tax benefit. If the valuation allowance is released in a future period, income tax expense will be reduced accordingly.
The calculation of tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex global tax regulations. The impact of an uncertain income tax position is recognized at the largest amount that is “more likely than not” to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. If the estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would result.
In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. The Company will continue to assess the need for a valuation allowance on the deferred tax asset by evaluating both positive and negative evidence that may exist. Any adjustment to the net deferred tax asset valuation allowance would be recorded in the income statement for the period that the adjustment is determined to be required.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity (net assets) of a business entity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from nonowner sources. Other comprehensive income (loss) includes certain changes in equity that are excluded from net income (loss), such as unrealized holding gains and losses on available-for-sale investments, net of tax, and translation gains and losses.
Net Income (Loss) per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to the Company by the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period. For diluted net income (loss) per share, net income attributable to the Company is divided by the sum of the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding and the potential number of shares of dilutive Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period.
Litigation and Settlement Costs
Legal costs are expensed as incurred. The Company is involved in disputes, litigation and other legal actions in the ordinary course of business. The Company continually evaluates uncertainties associated with litigation and records a charge equal to at least the minimum estimated liability for a loss contingency when both of the following conditions are met: (i) information available prior to issuance of the financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset had been impaired or a liability had been incurred at the date of the financial statements and (ii) the loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued new accounting guidance related to revenue recognition. This new standard will replace all current U.S. GAAP guidance on this topic and eliminate all industry-specific guidance. The new revenue recognition standard provides a unified model to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The core principle is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration for which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This guidance will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2017 and can be applied either retrospectively to each period presented or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The Company is evaluating the impact of adopting this new accounting standard on its financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued new accounting guidance related to the disclosures around going concern. The new standard provides guidance around management's responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity's ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. This guidance will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard to significantly impact its financial statements.

In November 2014, the FASB issued new accounting guidance related to business combinations. The new standard provides companies with the option to apply pushdown accounting in its separate financial statements upon occurrence of an event in which an acquirer obtains control of the acquired entity.  The election to apply pushdown accounting can be made either in the period in which the change of control occurred, or in a subsequent period.  If the election is made in a subsequent period, it would be considered a change in accounting principle and treated in accordance with the guidance related to accounting changes and error corrections. This guidance is effective for the Company as of November 18, 2014.  The adoption of this standard did not significantly impact the Company's financial statements.